The prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking and its association with opium use among outpatients in Afghanistan: A cross-sectional study in Andkhoy city
Mohammad Shoaib Hamrah1, Mohammad Hassan Hamrah2, Mohammad Hussain Hamrah3, Ahmad Edris Hamrah4, Toba Dahi5, Bagher Pahlavanzade6, Abdurrahman Charkazi7, Mohammad Hashem Hamrah4
1 Center for Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia
2 Dr. Mohammad Hashem Hamah’s Curative Clinic, Andkhoy, Faryab, Afghanistan; Faculty of Stomatology, Kunduz University, Kunduz, Afghanistan
3 Dr. Mohammad Hashem Hamah’s Curative Clinic, Andkhoy, Faryab, Afghanistan; Faculty of Medicine, Arya University, Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan
4 Dr. Mohammad Hashem Hamah’s Curative Clinic, Andkhoy, Faryab, Afghanistan
5 Faculty of Dentistry, AbantIzzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey
6 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
7 Environmental Health Research Center, School of Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
Dr. Mohammad Shoaib Hamrah
Centre for Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1322, Launceston TAS 7250.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking and the association between cigarette smoking and opium use among patients visiting an outpatient clinic in Afghanistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on consecutive patients aged 18 years and older from January 2018 to April 2018. Data on patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical variables were collected using an interview-based survey. Results: Six hundred and twenty-two patients (391males vs. 231 females) were interviewed for this study. The overall prevalence of current smoking was 50.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46.2–54.2). Males were (odds ratio [OR] = 9.5; 95% CI: 5.3–17.1) more likely to smoke cigarettes than females. The odds of current cigarette smoking increased with having a family member smoker or a friend smoker (OR =3.3; 95% CI: 2.0–5.3). Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with the level of education (illiterate OR = 8.9; 95% CI: 4.0–19.8), primary/private education (OR = 7.8; 95% CI: 3.9–15.6), and secondary education (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3–8.4), with high school or higher education as the reference group. Rural residents were 3.7 times (95% CI: 2.3–6.2) more likely to smoke cigarette than urban residents. Opium users were 23.0 times (95% CI: 12.5–42.3) more likely to smoke cigarettes than non-opium users. Conclusions: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among patients visiting an outpatient clinic in Afghanistan was high, and there was an association between cigarette smoking and male gender, a family history of smoking or a friend history of smoking, level of education, rural residency, and opium consumption.