Avicenna Journal of Medicine

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 93--101

High mortality risk of prostate cancer patients in Asia and West Africa: A systematic review


Jude O Okoye 
 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Jude O Okoye
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State.
Nigeria

Globally, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most preponderant cancer in men. It contributes to the high mortality-to-incidence ratio reported in West Africa and Asia largely due to low screening. The mortality risk is determined or predicted based on the prevalence of high-risk or aggressive PCa using a scoring or grading system such as Gleason score (GS), Gleason grade (GG), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. In this review, peer-reviewed articles found on databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed Central and, EMBASE were selected based on adherence to clinical guidelines for the classification of PCa. In West Africa and Asia, the result revealed that the frequency of high-risk PCa was 42% and 51.2% based on GS, 48.8% and 25.3% based on GG pattern, and 87.5% and 44.3% based on PSA level >10 ng/mL, respectively. Data revealed a high prevalence of high-risk PCa both in West Africa and Asia when compared with developed countries. However, the prevalence of high-risk PCa is higher in West Africa than in Asia. Studies have shown that high-risk PCas are associated with germline mutations and such mutations are prevalent in blacks and Asians than in whites. Thus, testing for germline mutations in patients with GS of ≥ 7, GG ≥ 3, high prostate density, low prostate volume, and PSA levels of >4.0 ng/mL may identify those at risk of developing lethal PCa and could reduce the mortality rates in Asia and West Africa.


How to cite this article:
Okoye JO. High mortality risk of prostate cancer patients in Asia and West Africa: A systematic review.Avicenna J Med 2020;10:93-101


How to cite this URL:
Okoye JO. High mortality risk of prostate cancer patients in Asia and West Africa: A systematic review. Avicenna J Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 5 ];10:93-101
Available from: http://www.avicennajmed.com/article.asp?issn=2231-0770;year=2020;volume=10;issue=3;spage=93;epage=101;aulast=Okoye;type=0