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   2019| April-June  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 8, 2019

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Hepatitis B: Knowledge and awareness among preclinical year medical students
Mohan B Sannathimmappa, Vinod Nambiar, Rajeev Arvindakshan
April-June 2019, 9(2):43-47
Background and Objective: Hepatitis B is an occupational health hazard to health-care workers. The complete knowledge of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and prevention is indispensable for medical students. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among preclinical year medical students.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. A predesigned self-administered questionnaire concerning hepatitis B knowledge and awareness was distributed to all the preclinical year medical students. The data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed by Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22. The results were expressed in numbers and percentages.Results: Of 251 students, only 132 students voluntarily participated in the study. Majority of the students (84.8%) were aware of HBV infection. Many students knew that blood transfusion (81.1%) and use of contaminated needles and syringes (74.2%) are major modes of transmission. However, less than 30% of the students had knowledge about other modes of transmission. More than 50% of the students lacked in their knowledge about clinical features and complications of hepatitis B infection. Majority of students (72.7%) were aware of HBV vaccination. However, many students did not know their vaccination status, whereas only 23.5% of the students were fully immunized.Conclusion: This study revealed lack of complete knowledge regarding hepatitis B among preclinical year medical students. They are at high risk of acquiring HBV infection during their clinical practice, later in life. Hence, implementation of well-structured education program in the first year itself is needed to create complete awareness among medical students about hepatitis B.
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Child and adolescent health in northwestern Syria: Findings from Healthy-Syria 2017 study
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Basil Bakri, Amena S Alsadek, Abdulmuhsen H Al-Hasan, Mohamad S Alrahhal, Farhan M Alsaleh, Fadia A Alsatouf, Musa`ab I Arab, Hussam Jnaid, Adnan A Hadid, Rayan S Terkawi, Manal M Zahran, Nabiha A Alghannam, Khalid A Altirkawi
April-June 2019, 9(2):61-74
Objectives: Since the uprising in 2011, there has been limited health-care data from inside Syria in the academic literature. This study aims to provide an updated account of pediatric health needs in the northwestern part of Syria; this should help inform the management and delivery of health-care services in this population.Methods: This is a prospective study, using a data registry, of all pediatric patients seen in a single center in northwestern Syria, between February and December 2017. We used international classification of diseases (ICD-10) codes to define cases, and tested several covariates, including age, sex, season of the year, and conditions of living for possible correlations with major illness categories.Results: We included 11,819 patients, of whom 5,288 (45%) were male and 6,531 (55%) were female. Collectively, these patients had 23,427 encounters. Respiratory diseases were the most encountered illnesses among all age groups (6320 [27%]), except late teen females, among whom gynecological/obstetric complaints dominated. Infectious diseases caused the greatest disease burden across all age groups, with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), infectious diarrhea, and otitis media representing almost half (47%) of all cases in this category. Nutritional deficiencies were diagnosed in 978 patients (8%), mostly in infants and toddlers (92%). We identified 1192 (17%) cases of acute diarrhea among all age groups, making it the second most common condition after URTIs. As compared to town residents, patients living in camps for internally displaced people accounted for more cases of infectious diarrhea (58%), chronic anemia (60%), and malnutrition (66%), especially severe acute malnutrition (76% of malnutrition cases). Vaccine-preventable illnesses represented a sizable category; we reported 69 cases of hepatitis A, 2 of poliomyelitis, 9 of pertussis, 37 of varicella, 11 of mumps, 8 of rubella, and 1 case of measles.Conclusion: We have identified urgent health-care issues in this population, including extreme malnutrition, high rates of infectious diseases, and high rates of teenage pregnancy. Also, we observed a relapse of some vaccine-preventable illnesses, such as mumps and rubella, which are likely associated with the decline in vaccination rates.
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Comparative assessment of conventional chromosomal analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in the evaluation of suspected myelodysplastic syndromes: A single institution experience
Denyo Adjoa Zakhia, Olga Voronel, Feras Zaiem, Kunil Raval, Jay Yang, Deborah Schloff, Anwar N Mohamed, Ali M Gabali
April-June 2019, 9(2):55-60
Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic neoplasms, roughly half of which harbor cytogenetic abnormalities with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic significance. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the most commonly seen abnormalities (5/5q, –7/7q, +8, and –20/20q–) is routinely performed alongside conventional cytogenetics (CC) in the evaluation of suspected MDS despite conflicting reports of its relative contribution compared to CC alone.Objectives: To assess the additional diagnostic and prognostic value of performing concurrent FISH versus CC alone in cases of suspected MDS.Materials and Methods: A total of 127 bone marrow samples submitted to our cytogenetic laboratory with a presumptive diagnosis of MDS were evaluated by concurrent CC and an MDS FISH panel.Results: CC was used as the gold standard method with 100% sensitivity in detecting suspected MDS-associated cytogenetic abnormalities. FISH alone had a sensitivity of 76%, whereas CC alone achieved a sensitivity of 97%. The addition of FISH did not change the diagnosis nor change the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System score in any patient. Moreover, in 12 cases identified as positive by both CC and FISH, CC identified multiple chromosomal aberrations of clinical significance not interrogated by the FISH probe panel.Conclusion: CC alone is sufficiently sensitive in detecting suspected MDS-associated cytogenetic abnormalities that influence clinical decision-making. Routine FISH testing does not provide a significant increase in test sensitivity when an adequate karyotype is obtained. Therefore, FISH testing is best reserved for suspected MDS cases lacking sufficient metaphases.
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Left ventricular dyssynchrony assessment using tissue synchronization imaging in acute myocardial infarction
Ahmed S Azazy, Mahmoud Soliman, Rehab Yaseen, Morad Mena, Haitham Sakr
April-June 2019, 9(2):48-54
Objectives: To assess left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Background: Mechanical synchronization disorder leads to a decrease in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and stroke volume, an abnormal distribution of wall tension, and increase in workload during cardiac contraction. Methods: We enrolled 56 participants, 36 with acute STEMI and 20 healthy controls. The automatically color-coded time to peak myocardial velocity was measured using a 6mm sample volume, manually positioned within the two-dimensional-tissue strain image of the 12 basal and middle LV segments. Results: A significant delay was found between the septal-lateral and septal-posterior walls in patients with STEMI compared to patients in the control group (36.36 vs. −6.0ms, P = 0.036; and 42.7 vs. 23.94ms, P = 0.042, respectively). Furthermore, all segment maximum differences and all segment standard deviation (SD; dyssynchrony index) were found to be significantly higher in the STEMI group (131.28 vs. 95.45ms, P = 0.013; and 44.47 vs. 26.45ms, P = 0.001, respectively). A significant delay between the septal-lateral walls and septal-posterior walls, all segment maximum difference, and all segment SD (dyssynchrony index) were found in patients with complicated STEMI (70.89 vs. 15.83ms, P = 0.038; 57.44 vs. 19.06ms, P = 0.040; 138.11 vs. 100.0ms, P = 0.035; and 45.44 vs. 32.50ms, P = 0.021, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation between tissue synchronization imaging parameters and LVEF, and a positive correlation with LV end systolic dimension. Conclusion: Patients with acute STEMI showed significant LV dyssynchrony, which was an independent predictor of inhospital complications.
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Epidural analgesia for percutaneous kyphoplasty in a patient with multiple medical comorbidities
Waseem S Alfahel, Alia S Dabbous, Mark E Thompson
April-June 2019, 9(2):75-77
Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure intended to stabilize the fractured bone and restore bone height. It involves percutaneous introduction of an inflatable bone tamp into a fractured vertebral body, followed by injection of bone cement into the ballooned pocket. Anesthetic options typically considered for this procedure include intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. These patients are often elderly, frail, in significant pain, and may poorly tolerate sedation or general anesthesia in the prone position. Spinal anesthesia has been suggested as an alternative method. However, it has major limitations. We would like to report a case of a 79-year-old patient with multiple comorbidities, who presented for kyphoplasty, where epidural anesthesia was conducted and successfully provided adequate analgesia as well as optimal surgical conditions.
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Rare morbidity of permanent quadriplegia caused by neurenteric cyst of the cervical cord
Henry Tan Chor Lip, Tan Jih Huei, Ariz Chong Abdullah, Noor Azman Bin A Rahman
April-June 2019, 9(2):78-81
The incidence of neurenteric cyst (NC) is rare, accounting for 0.3%–1.3% of all spine tumors. The occurrence of quadriplegia caused by NC is even scarcer. Herein we report on a young girl with a rare NC over the C2-C5 spinal cord, which led to the morbidity of permanent quadriplegia despite early surgical intervention. This case highlights the rare morbidity of cervical cord NC presenting with permanent quadriplegia that failed to respond despite early surgical excision.
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Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Fahed Darmoch, Yasser Al-khadra, Homam Moussa Pacha, Mohamad Soud, M Chadi Alraies
April-June 2019, 9(2):86-88
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Ileal volvulus secondary to cystic lymphangioma: A rare case report with a literature review
Shoog F Alfadhel, Abdulmajeed A Alghamdi, Saif A Alzahrani
April-June 2019, 9(2):82-85
Lymphangioma is a benign malformation of the lymphatic system. It usually affects the neck, head, and rarely, the abdomen. Volvulus is a serious condition, which occurs as a result of bowel twisting around itself or around the mesentery leading to severe consequences such as obstruction. The most common cause of volvulus in children is malrotation. We report a rare case of a 2-year-old boy who was brought by his parents to the emergency room with the complaint of constipation for 5 days and vomiting for the last 4 days. Examination and plain abdominal X-ray suggested intestinal obstruction. Furthermore, ultrasonography indicated the presence of a cyst and dilatation of the bowel. On exploratory laparotomy, an ileal volvulus caused by cystic lymphangioma developed on the mesenteric wall and associated with ileal and jejunal dilatation was observed. The diseased segments were resected in addition to 5cm before and after the cystic lymphangioma to prevent recurrence.
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